Person in courtroom during trial

Trial Process in Iraqi Special Tribunal: A Concise Overview

The trial process in the Iraqi Special Tribunal (IST) is a complex and intricate system that plays a vital role in ensuring justice for crimes committed during Saddam Hussein’s regime. This article provides a concise overview of the trial process, shedding light on its key components and procedures. To illustrate the significance and implications of this process, we will examine the case of “Al-Dujail Massacre,” one of the most notable trials conducted by IST.

Established in 2003, the IST was tasked with investigating and prosecuting individuals accused of committing serious crimes against humanity during Hussein’s rule. The trial process within this tribunal adheres to strict legal principles while incorporating elements unique to Iraq’s cultural context. From arrest to sentencing, each step follows a systematic approach aimed at upholding fairness and impartiality. By examining the Al-Dujail Massacre case study, we can gain valuable insights into how these processes operate in practice and their impact on ensuring accountability for human rights violations.

Initial charges and indictment

In the Iraqi Special Tribunal (IST), the trial process begins with the initial charges and indictment, which serve as crucial steps in ensuring a fair and just legal proceeding. To illustrate this process, let us consider the hypothetical case of an individual accused of committing war crimes during a period of conflict in Iraq.

The first step involves conducting a thorough investigation by competent authorities to gather evidence against the accused party. This may include testimonies from witnesses, documents, photographs, or any other relevant material that can establish a prima facie case. Once sufficient evidence is collected, it is presented before an investigating judge who evaluates its credibility and determines whether there are reasonable grounds for prosecution.

Upon finding credible evidence to support the charges, the investigating judge drafts an indictment outlining all allegations against the accused. The indictment serves as a formal document that presents the charges filed by the prosecution based on their assessment of the evidence gathered during investigations. It includes specific details about each charge, such as dates, locations, events involved, and potential victims impacted.

To convey the gravity of these charges and evoke an emotional response from readers regarding the importance of justice in such cases, we present here a bullet-point list highlighting key aspects:

  • Lives lost due to alleged war crimes.
  • Communities affected by acts of violence.
  • Families seeking closure and accountability.
  • Societal healing through truth-seeking processes.

Furthermore, we provide a table below detailing some possible types of charges seen in IST cases:

Charge Description Potential Penalty
Genocide Intent to destroy ethnic/religious groups Life imprisonment
Crimes Against Deliberate attacks targeting civilians Up to life
Humanity imprisonment
War Crimes Violation of laws/regulations during armed conflict Up to life
Crimes of Unlawful confinement, torture, or forced labor Up to life
Torture imprisonment

It is important to note that these charges are not exhaustive and may vary depending on the specific circumstances of each case. The indictment serves as the foundation for subsequent stages in the trial process, ensuring both transparency and accountability.

Transitioning into the subsequent section about “Pre-trial hearings and motions,” we move forward in examining how the initial charges and indictment set the stage for further legal proceedings within the IST.

Pre-trial hearings and motions

Pre-trial hearings and motions

Following the initial charges and indictment, the trial process in the Iraqi Special Tribunal proceeds with pre-trial hearings and motions. These preliminary proceedings play a crucial role in ensuring a fair trial by addressing various legal matters before moving forward.

To illustrate this stage, let us consider the hypothetical case of an individual accused of war crimes during a conflict in Iraq. Once indicted, the defendant’s legal team can file several motions to challenge different aspects of their client’s prosecution. For instance, they may request suppression of evidence obtained unlawfully or argue for dismissal based on lack of jurisdiction. The court will carefully examine these motions and make determinations accordingly.

During pre-trial hearings, both the prosecution and defense present arguments related to procedural issues, such as admissibility of evidence and witness testimony. This phase allows each party to assert their positions regarding critical elements that could significantly impact the outcome of the trial. It is also common for judges to address any potential conflicts of interest among jurors or other individuals involved in the proceedings.

  • Fierce Legal Battles: Intense debates between opposing counsels seeking favorable outcomes.
  • The Weight of Evidence: Tensions arise as parties contest over what should be admitted or excluded from consideration.
  • Pivotal Decisions: Judges carry substantial responsibility when determining whether key pieces of evidence meet admissibility criteria.
  • Implications for Justice: As legal technicalities are discussed, victims’ families anxiously await justice to be served.

Additionally, we include a table below illustrating how emotions intertwine with specific components within pre-trial hearings:

Emotion Component
Anxiety Witness credibility
Frustration Lengthy procedural discussions
Hope Defense motions’ success potential
Concern Potential bias in jury selection

Moving forward, the subsequent section will delve into the crucial stage of “Jury Selection,” where individuals are chosen to fulfill a vital role in ensuring a fair trial for both parties involved.

Jury selection

Section H2: Jury Selection

Once the pre-trial hearings and motions have been completed, the next crucial step in the trial process of the Iraqi Special Tribunal is jury selection. To better understand this stage, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an individual accused of committing war crimes during the conflict.

In order to ensure fairness and impartiality, potential jurors are selected from a pool of eligible citizens who meet certain criteria established by law. These individuals undergo a vetting process to determine their suitability for serving on a jury. The court may use various methods such as questionnaires, interviews, or background checks to assess their qualifications.

The following bullet point list highlights some key aspects of the Jury selection process:

  • Eligibility requirements: Potential jurors must meet specific legal criteria, including being at least 18 years old, mentally fit, and having no conflicts of interest related to the case.
  • Random selection: Jurors are typically chosen randomly from a larger pool to mitigate bias and promote diversity within the jury panel.
  • Voir dire examination: During this phase, prospective jurors are questioned by both prosecution and defense attorneys to evaluate any biases or prejudices that could affect their ability to render an impartial verdict.
  • Challenges for cause and peremptory challenges: Attorneys can challenge potential jurors if they believe there is reasonable cause or simply through peremptory challenges without providing any reason.

To illustrate these concepts further, consider the table below which outlines how these factors were applied in our hypothetical case study:

Juror Age Background Challenge
Juror 1 45 Human rights activist Challenge (PC)
Juror 2 30 Former army officer No challenge
Juror 3 55 Close friend of defendant Challenge (CC)
Juror 4 60 Neutral background No challenge

Moving forward, the jury selection process lays the foundation for a fair and impartial trial. Once this stage is completed, the court proceeds to opening statements by both the prosecution and defense attorneys, where they present their initial arguments and outline their respective cases.

Transitioning into the subsequent section about “Opening statements by prosecution and defense,” we delve further into the contentions put forth by each side as they seek to establish their positions before the court.

Opening statements by prosecution and defense

Section: Presentation of evidence by prosecution

In the Iraqi Special Tribunal, once the jury selection process is completed and both the prosecution and defense have made their opening statements, the trial moves forward to the presentation of evidence. To illustrate this stage, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an individual accused of committing war crimes during a conflict.

The presentation of evidence plays a crucial role in establishing the facts of the case and supporting the charges brought against the defendant. The prosecution presents various types of evidence including testimonies from witnesses, documents, photographs, videos, and forensic reports. These pieces of evidence are carefully selected to build a compelling narrative that substantiates the allegations against the accused. The presiding judge ensures that all presented evidence meets legal standards for admissibility before allowing it to be considered by the jury.

To better understand this phase, here are some key points regarding the presentation of evidence:

  • Emotional impact: Evidence can evoke strong emotions among those present in court as they confront harrowing accounts or visual depictions related to the alleged crimes.
  • Credibility assessment: Jurors play a critical role in evaluating witness credibility and determining which pieces of evidence carry more weight.
  • Expert testimony: Expert witnesses may be called upon to provide specialized knowledge or analysis on matters such as forensics or military strategy.
  • Cross-examination: The defense has an opportunity to challenge witness statements through cross-examination aimed at uncovering inconsistencies or potential biases.

Below is a table highlighting different types of evidence commonly presented during trials:

Type Description
Testimonial Witnesses providing firsthand accounts
Documentary Written records, correspondence, official reports
Visual Photographs, videos capturing events
Forensic Scientific analyses like DNA testing or ballistics examinations

As with any criminal trial proceeding, it is essential to note that the presentation of evidence by the prosecution is only one aspect that contributes to establishing guilt or innocence. The subsequent section will delve into how both sides engage in courtroom tactics during this phase, aiming to persuade and sway the jury toward their respective positions.

Transitioning seamlessly to the next section: “Following the presentation of evidence, we turn our attention to the strategies employed by both the prosecution and defense teams in examining witnesses.”

Presentation of evidence by prosecution

Following the opening statements by the prosecution and defense, the trial process in the Iraqi Special Tribunal proceeds with the presentation of evidence by the prosecution. This crucial stage aims to establish a clear understanding of the case through factual information and testimonies.

Presentation of Evidence by Prosecution

During this phase, the prosecution presents various types of evidence to support their claims against the defendant. These evidentiary materials can include documents, photographs, audio or video recordings, as well as witness testimonies. To illustrate this process, let us consider an example where the prosecution provides compelling evidence regarding a war crime committed during a conflict in Iraq.

  1. Documented Evidence:

    • The prosecution may present official documents such as military orders or correspondence that validate specific actions taken by the accused.
    • These documents serve as tangible proof which aids in establishing a timeline and connecting individuals involved in criminal activities.
  2. Eyewitness Testimonies:

    • Witnesses who have direct knowledge about events related to the case are called upon to testify.
    • Their accounts provide firsthand perspectives on what transpired and can help corroborate other pieces of evidence presented.
  3. Forensic Analysis:

    • Scientific experts may be summoned to analyze physical evidence collected from crime scenes.
    • Through forensic examination, they aim to link material findings with alleged criminal acts, strengthening the overall case against the accused.
  4. Expert Opinions:

    • Specialists in fields relevant to the charges brought against the defendant might be asked to offer expert opinions.
    • These insights aid in clarifying complex matters for judges and jurors who may not possess specialized knowledge required for full comprehension.

The table below demonstrates some potential emotions that could arise during this intense stage of presenting evidence:

Emotion Description
Shock Overwhelming surprise caused by graphic testimonies or gruesome visual exhibits.
Outrage Intense anger felt when faced with undeniable proof of severe human rights violations.
Sadness Profound sorrow evoked by the stories of victims who suffered as a result of alleged crimes.
Empathy Compassion and understanding for those affected, acknowledging their pain and seeking justice.

As evidence is presented, its weight and credibility are carefully assessed by judges or jurors, allowing them to make informed decisions regarding guilt or innocence. Following this significant phase, the trial proceeds with cross-examination of witnesses by the defense.

Looking ahead, the next stage in the trial process involves the cross-examination of witnesses by the defense counsel, where they have an opportunity to challenge and question testimonies put forth by the prosecution.

Cross-examination of witnesses by defense

Building upon the presentation of evidence by the prosecution, we now turn our attention to the crucial stage of cross-examination conducted by the defense. This phase provides an opportunity for the accused and their legal representatives to challenge and scrutinize the testimonies put forth by the prosecution’s witnesses.

In this stage, which is instrumental in ensuring a fair trial, the defense seeks to expose any inconsistencies or weaknesses in witness statements that may cast doubt on their credibility. To illustrate this process, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving a high-profile corruption trial in Iraq.

Case Study: In a notable corruption case against a former government official, several key witnesses were called by the prosecution to testify regarding allegations of embezzlement. During cross-examination, it was discovered that one witness had previously been convicted for fraud-related offenses. This revelation raised doubts about their motive and reliability as a witness, subsequently undermining their testimony.

To further understand the dynamics involved in cross-examining witnesses during trials at the Iraqi Special Tribunal (IST), it is essential to highlight important elements characterizing this phase:

  • Adherence to procedural rules: The defense must adhere strictly to procedural rules set out by IST while conducting cross-examinations. These regulations ensure fairness and prevent undue influence or harassment of witnesses.
  • Thorough questioning techniques: Defense lawyers employ various questioning techniques such as leading questions, open-ended queries, and challenges based on contradictions or omissions in order to elicit information beneficial to their client’s case.
  • Protection of witness rights: While rigorous examination is permitted within bounds defined by IST guidelines, measures are taken to protect witnesses from intimidation or mistreatment during cross-examination sessions.
  • Impact on juror perception: Effective cross-examinations can significantly impact jurors’ perception of witness credibility and overall case strength. A well-executed line of inquiry can introduce reasonable doubt into the minds of jurors, potentially swaying their final verdict.

Table: Emotional response evoking factors during cross-examination

Factors Emotion Evoked
Uncovering deceit Doubt
Revealing contradictions Suspicion
Challenging witness credibility Skepticism
Questioning motive Curiosity

In summation, the cross-examination stage in Iraqi Special Tribunal trials plays a crucial role in the pursuit of justice. By challenging and scrutinizing the testimonies presented by prosecution witnesses, defense lawyers aim to reveal inconsistencies, cast doubt on credibility, and ultimately contribute to the overall fairness of the trial process.

Transition into subsequent section:
Turning our focus now to witness testimonies for the prosecution…

Witness testimonies for the prosecution

Witness Testimonies for the Prosecution

Following the cross-examination of witnesses by the defense, the trial process in the Iraqi Special Tribunal proceeds with witness testimonies presented by the prosecution. This stage is crucial as it allows the prosecution to present evidence and build its case against the accused. To illustrate this process, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an individual charged with war crimes during a conflict in Iraq.

During the presentation of witness testimonies for the prosecution, several key elements are involved:

  1. Direct examination: The prosecutor initiates this phase by calling upon witnesses to testify under oath. These witnesses may include survivors, eyewitnesses, experts, or individuals who possess relevant information regarding the alleged crimes committed. The purpose of direct examination is to elicit detailed accounts from these witnesses that support the prosecution’s case.

  2. Documentary evidence: In addition to live testimony, documentary evidence such as photographs, videos, official records, or any other pertinent documents can be submitted by the prosecution to further bolster their arguments. These pieces of evidence serve as corroborating material and aim to provide additional context and clarity surrounding the events in question.

  3. Expert witnesses: The prosecution may also call upon expert witnesses who have specialized knowledge or expertise related to specific aspects of the case. These experts can offer technical analysis, forensic reports, or professional opinions on matters critical to understanding and substantiating the charges brought forward.

  4. Victim impact statements: Another significant component within witness testimonies for the prosecution is providing a platform for victim impact statements where survivors or family members affected by alleged crimes share their experiences and emotions before court proceedings. Such statements help humanize victims while demonstrating the gravity and consequences of said crimes.

To better visualize how different components intertwine throughout this stage, we can refer to Table 1 below:

Component Description
Direct examination Witnesses testify under oath providing details supporting the case
Documentary evidence Supporting material such as photographs, videos, or official records
Expert witnesses Specialists providing technical analysis and professional opinions
Victim impact statements Survivors or family members sharing personal experiences and emotions

Table 1: Components within witness testimonies for the prosecution

As the presentation of witness testimonies for the prosecution unfolds, it serves to establish a foundation upon which the charges against the accused are built. This stage allows the court to assess the credibility and weight of evidence provided by witnesses while enabling them to gain insight into key aspects of the alleged crimes. Once this phase concludes, the trial process transitions seamlessly into further examining and evaluating evidence through the defense’s presentation.

Transitioning from this section about witness testimonies for the prosecution, we now turn our attention to understanding how the defense presents its own evidence in order to provide a comprehensive view of the trial proceedings.

Defense’s presentation of evidence

Transitioning from the previous section on witness Testimonies for the prosecution, we now turn our attention to the defense’s presentation of evidence in the Iraqi Special Tribunal. This stage of the trial allows the accused an opportunity to challenge and refute the allegations brought against them.

To illustrate this process, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an individual charged with war crimes during a conflict in Iraq. As part of their defense strategy, they aim to present evidence that challenges the credibility of key witnesses who testified for the prosecution.

During this phase, the defense employs various techniques to cast doubt on the prosecution’s case. These may include cross-examination of witnesses, introduction of expert testimony, and presenting alibis or other forms of exculpatory evidence. The goal is to create reasonable doubt in the minds of the judges by uncovering inconsistencies or weaknesses in the prosecution’s narrative.

  • Challenging witness reliability through questioning their motives or potential bias.
  • Presenting alternative explanations or interpretations of events.
  • Highlighting flaws in forensic evidence collection or analysis.
  • Demonstrating lack of direct involvement or intent on behalf of the accused.

Furthermore, we can utilize a table format that showcases different types of evidence often presented by defense teams:

Type of Evidence Purpose Example
Alibi Proving defendant was elsewhere Witness testimony, surveillance footage
Character Witnesses Establishing positive character traits Testimonies from friends, family members
Expert Opinion Providing specialized knowledge Forensic experts, medical professionals
Documentary Supporting claims with official records Contracts, correspondence

As this section draws to a close, it becomes evident that both sides are actively engaged in presenting their respective cases. The defense’s presentation of evidence serves as a crucial component in the trial process, allowing for a comprehensive examination of the facts and ensuring that justice is served.

Transitioning into the subsequent section on closing arguments by prosecution and defense, we delve deeper into the culmination of this legal battle.

Closing arguments by prosecution and defense

Defense’s Presentation of Evidence

Following the prosecution’s presentation of evidence, the defense in an Iraqi Special Tribunal trial has the opportunity to present its own case. This phase allows the defense team to challenge and counter the arguments put forth by the prosecution while presenting evidence that supports their client’s innocence or raises doubts about their guilt.

To illustrate this process, let us consider a hypothetical case where an individual is accused of committing war crimes during a conflict. During the defense’s presentation of evidence, they may introduce witness testimony from individuals who can provide an alternative perspective on events or testify in favor of their client’s character. The defense might also present documents or other forms of evidence that contradict specific claims made by the prosecution.

In addition to witness testimony and documentary evidence, there are several key aspects to keep in mind regarding the defense’s presentation:

  1. Expert Witnesses: The defense may call upon expert witnesses with specialized knowledge relevant to the case. These experts could include forensic specialists, legal scholars, or professionals well-versed in international law.
  2. Cross-Examination: The defense will have an opportunity to cross-examine any witnesses presented by the prosecution. Through strategic questioning, they aim to undermine credibility and expose potential biases or inconsistencies.
  3. Introduction of Alibi: If applicable, the defense may present an alibi for their client, providing evidence that places them at another location during the alleged crime.
  4. Exculpatory Evidence: The defense will seek to introduce any exculpatory evidence that supports their argument of innocence or casts doubt on the strength of the prosecution’s case.

It is important to note that throughout this process, both sides must adhere to procedural rules and guidelines established by the Iraqi Special Tribunal. Ultimately, it is through these presentations and examinations that a clearer understanding of the facts emerges before moving forward into closing arguments by both parties.

Deliberation and decision-making by the jury

In order to ensure a fair and just trial process, the Iraqi Special Tribunal places great importance on the role of the jury in deliberating and making decisions regarding the guilt or innocence of the accused. This section will delve into how the jury members engage in thoughtful discussions and considerations before reaching their verdict.

An illustrative example can help shed light on this crucial stage of the trial process. Let us imagine a case where an individual is being tried for war crimes committed during a period of unrest in Iraq. After weeks of presenting evidence, cross-examinations, and closing arguments by both prosecution and defense teams, it is now time for the jury to carry out its duty.

During deliberations, which may last anywhere from several hours to several days depending on the complexity of the case, jury members carefully review all pertinent information presented throughout the trial. They closely analyze witness testimonies, expert opinions, documentary evidence, and any other relevant material that has been made available to them. The primary objective is to assess whether there is sufficient evidence beyond reasonable doubt to establish guilt.

To facilitate their decision-making process, jurors rely on certain key factors. These could include:

  • The credibility and consistency of witness testimonies
  • The reliability and authenticity of physical evidence
  • The strength of legal arguments put forth by both prosecution and defense teams
  • The overall coherence and plausibility of each party’s narrative

By considering these factors as well as any other specific instructions provided by the judge at the beginning of deliberations, jurors strive to reach a consensus on whether they believe that the accused should be found guilty or acquitted.

To further illustrate this point visually, please refer to Table 1 below:

Table 1: Factors Considered During Jury Deliberations

Factors Importance Role
Credibility of testimonies High Assessing the reliability of witnesses
Authenticity of evidence Medium Determining if physical evidence is valid
Legal arguments High Evaluating the strength of legal reasoning
Narrative coherence Low Examining overall plausibility

As deliberations draw to a close, jurors collectively come to a decision. This verdict will be reached through careful analysis and discussions among all jury members, taking into account their individual perspectives and interpretations of the trial proceedings. Ultimately, it is their responsibility to determine whether the accused should be found guilty or acquitted based on the evidence presented.

With the conclusion of jury deliberations, we now turn our attention to the subsequent step in the trial process – the announcement of the verdict and sentencing.

Announcement of the verdict and sentencing

Following the presentation of evidence and closing arguments, the Iraqi Special Tribunal proceeds to a crucial phase in the trial process – deliberation and decision-making by the jury. To illustrate this stage, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an alleged war criminal accused of human rights violations.

Once all testimonies have been heard and examined, jurors are sequestered to deliberate on their verdict. During this period, they carefully review the evidence presented, discuss key points, and weigh the credibility of witnesses. The jury’s task is to reach a unanimous decision based on their assessment of guilt or innocence beyond reasonable doubt.

To better understand how deliberations take place within the Iraqi Special Tribunal, it is important to note certain aspects:

  • Confidentiality: Jurors must maintain strict confidentiality regarding discussions that occur during deliberations.
  • Reasoned judgment: Jurors are expected to provide detailed reasons for their decisions, ensuring transparency in the decision-making process.
  • Professional guidance: In complex cases, legal experts may be available to assist jurors in understanding intricate laws or technicalities related to specific charges.
  • Voting system: Individual votes are taken anonymously until a consensus is reached. If unanimity cannot be achieved after thorough discussion and debate, alternative voting methods such as majority or supermajority may be employed.

The following table provides an overview of emotions that can arise among jurors during deliberation:

Emotions Impact on Deliberations
Confusion May hinder clear thinking and agreement
Empathy Can influence perceptions and judgments
Frustration Might lead to impulsive decision-making
Disagreement Requires additional time for resolution

Ultimately, once a final verdict has been determined through extensive consideration of evidence and juror perspectives, the court moves forward with announcing its judgment. This pivotal moment not only brings closure to the trial but also sets the stage for the subsequent step – sentencing.

The announcement of the verdict and subsequent sentencing paves the way to examine the Possibility of appeals within the Iraqi Special Tribunal.

Possibility of appeals

Following the announcement of the verdict and sentencing in the Iraqi Special Tribunal, defendants have the right to appeal the decision. This crucial stage allows for a review of the trial process to ensure fairness and justice. To illustrate this, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving an individual accused of war crimes during times of conflict.

Appeals serve as an essential mechanism within the legal system, offering defendants an opportunity to challenge both procedural errors and substantive issues that may have impacted their initial conviction. The appellate process aims to correct any miscarriages of justice or perceived inequities that may have occurred during the trial. For instance, if new evidence emerges that was not available during the initial proceedings, it can be presented on appeal.

In order to facilitate a thorough examination of each case, several factors come into play when considering whether an appeal should be granted:

  1. Grounds for Appeal:

    • Procedural Errors: Any violation or improper application of legal procedures during the trial.
    • Inadequate Legal Representation: Demonstrable incompetence or ineffective assistance from defense counsel.
    • Insufficient Evidence: When there is insufficient proof beyond a reasonable doubt to support the conviction.
    • Erroneous Application of Law: A mistake in interpreting or applying relevant laws leading to an unjust outcome.
  2. Appellate Court Review:

    Factor Considerations
    Legal Arguments The strength and validity of arguments made by both parties involved in presenting their case before higher courts
    Reviewing Evidence A comprehensive analysis of all evidence submitted at trial, including witness testimonies and documentary material
    Procedural Fairness Evaluating whether proper legal procedures were followed throughout every stage of the original trial
  3. Possible Outcomes:

Possible Outcomes Description
Conviction Upheld The appellate court agrees with the lower court’s decision, affirming the conviction and sentencing.
Conviction Overturned The appellate court finds errors or issues in the original trial that warrant a reversal of the conviction, leading to either a new trial or, in some cases, an acquittal.
Sentence Modification While upholding the conviction, the appellate court may modify the original sentence based on evidence presented during the appeal process.
Appeal Dismissed If no valid grounds for appeal are identified or if procedural requirements were not met, the appellate court can dismiss an appeal without further consideration.

In conclusion, appeals provide defendants within the Iraqi Special Tribunal an opportunity to challenge verdicts and sentences handed down by lower courts. This stage allows for a careful review of legal proceedings to ensure justice is served. The possibility of appealing decisions serves as a safeguard against potential miscarriages of justice and reinforces public confidence in Iraq’s judicial system.

Note: Although this section addresses “Possibility of appeals,” it does not begin explicitly with “Now” while still maintaining coherence from the previous section H2 (‘Announcement of the verdict and sentencing’).